Tunnel monitoring - chapter 3 - Ground above tunnel excavation

In this set of video (Tunnel monitoring) we would like to present some monitoring solutions that could be used during tunnel excavation. The chapter 3 presents some possible solutions to monitor displacements, settlements and pressures in the zone around the excavation for tunnels with small coverage, typical in metro tunnel excavation. Main applied instruments are DEX-S extenso-inclinometers to monitor 3D displacements, MPBX multipoint rod extensometers to control settlements/heaves and piezometers to monitor pore water pressure.