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- Inclinometers and Tiltmeters (33)
- RDS Railway Deformation System (8)
- Pendulums (2)
- Settlement Gauges (14)
- Pressure cells (7)
- Load Cells (6)
- Extensometers (6)
- Crackmeters and Jointmeters (3)
- Strain Gauges and Thermometers (4)
- Readout units and dataloggers (60)
- Cables, Accessories and Software (3)
If the water filled casing is lighter than grout backfill the uplift force of grout varies with the height of the grout column. If the column is short, the uplift force is low and the casing can be held in place by its own weight or with very little down-force applied from the top. When the grout sets, the bottom cap is isolated from the column of grout and there is no surface for the uplift force to act on. No more than two or three meters to 3 m need to be grouted in the first stage. If the normal bentonite/cement grout is used it needs to set for at least 12 hours before second-stage grouting.
Avoid use of a quick-set grout, since the heat of hydration could melt and deform the plastic. The two stages can be placed via an outside tremie pipe. Alternatively the first stage can be placed before lowering the casing, provided that all is done efficiently so that there is no chance of the grout setting prematurely.